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Center for Taiji Studies



Center for Taiji Studies Research
Table Summary of Select Taiji Research Studies
KinesiologyHuman DynamicsTaiji ReferencesMeditation References

Author Category Design Subjects Results
Van Deusen
& Harlowe,
1987
Orthopedic disease (rheumatoid arthritis) Randomized controlled clinical trial Rheumatoid arthritis - Taiji: 17 Control: 16 Taiji has positive effects on the range of motion of the upper extremities.
Jin, 1989 Psychological & Physiological Randomized controlled trial Healthy-- Beginners: 33 Practitioners: 33 Taiji practice has positive effects as moderate exercise in selected psychological and physiological measures.
Kirsteins, et al., 1991 Orthopedic disease (rheumatoid arthritis) Comparative study Two Taiji groups: 20, 20 Two control groups: 11, 9 "Taiji appears safe to RA patients and may serve as an alternative for their exercise therapy and part of their rehabilitation program."
Tse & Bailey, 1992 Postural control Cross-sectional study Healthy community dwelling elderly- Taiji: 9 Non-Taiji: 9 Taiji has positive effects on postural control.
Lai, et al., 1993 Cardiorespiratory function Case control study Healthy community dwelling middle aged adults-- Taiji: 41 Control: 49 "Taiji may be beneficial to the cardiorespiratory function of older individuals."
Lai, et al., 1995 Cardiorespiratory function Cohort study, Comparative study Healthy community dwelling older adults-- Taiji: 45 Control: 39 Taiji practice may delay the decline of cardiorespiratory function of older adults. Taiji is an aerobic exercise.
Lan, et al., 1996 Cardiorespiratory function Case control study Healthy community dwelling older adults-- Taiji: 41 Control: 35 "Taiji practitioners have higher peak oxygen uptake and higher oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold.Taiji can be prescribed as a conditioning exercise for older adults."
Schaller 1996 Cardiorespiratory function, Balance Controlled clinical trial Community dwelling elders-- Taiji: 24 Control: 22 Taiji practice improved balance but not systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Taiji might help community dwelling elders improve their balance. (Note - 10 Week intervention is too short to see change in blood presure.)
Wolf et al., 1996 Cardiorespiratory function, Fall Prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial Community dwelling elderly adults-- Taiji: 72 Balance: 64 Education: 64 Taiji training reduced the rate of falls and fear of falling, and lowered blood pressure.
Wolfson et al., 1996 Fall Randomized controlled trial Healthy community dwelling older adults-- Balance: 28 Strength: 28 Balance + Strength: 27 Control: 27 Taiji training has the effect of maintaining the significant balance and strength gains obtained in strength and balance training.
Jacobson, et al., 1997 Balance training Randomized controlled trial Healthy volunteers with mean age of 45-- Taiji: 12 Control: 12 Taiji training improved lateral body stability and the strength of the dominant knee extensor significantly. Taiji may be a low stress method for lateral stability and the strength of knee extensor.
Kutner et al., 1997 Psychological Prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial Community dwelling elderly adults-- Taiji: 72 Balance: 64 Education: 64 Both TC and BT increased participants' confidence in balance and movement, but only TC affected daily activities and their overall life.
Lan, et al., 1998 Health fitness Case (taiji, voluntarily ) and control study Community dwelling elderly adults-- Taiji: 20 Control: 18 TC group significantly improved VO2max, flexibility, and strength of knee extensor and flexor. A 12-month Taiji program appears effective to improve older adults' fitness.
Yan, J. H., 1998 Postural control Motor control ? Subjects chose to do taiji or walking Older adults at nursing home-- Taiji: 28; Walking: 10 Taiji may improve older adults' dynamic balance and smoothness of arm movement.
Hain et al., 1999 Postural control Before-after trial (?) 22 with mild balance disorders Taiji training significantly improved balance.
Husted et al., 1999 Psychosocial and effects Nonrandomized study Patients with multiple sclerosis An 8-week Taiji training increased walking speed by 21% and hamstring flexibility by 28%. Patients also improved in vitality, social functioning, mental health, and ability to carry out physical and emotional roles.
Lan, et al., 1999 Cardiorespiratory function Prospective study Low-risk with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS)-- Taiji: 9 Control: 11 Taiji training increased VO2 and work rate. Taiji also increased ventilatory threshold VO2 and work rate. Taiji can favorably enhance cardiorespiratory function for low risk patients with coronary artery bypass surgery.
Yan, J.H. 1999 Motor control Follow-up studies Older adults (mean=79)-- Taiji: 12 Walking/jogging: 8 Taiji reduced the force variability in arm movement.
Hong, et al., 2000 Balance control, Flexibility, Cardiorespiratory function Cross sectional study Healthy male adults-- Taiji: 28 (mean=67) Control (sedentary): 30 (mean=66) Taiji may have favorable effects on older adults' balance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness.
Lan, et al., 2000 Strength and endurance (knee extensor) Before-after trial Healthy community dwelling elderly adults-- 41 (mean=61) A 6-month Taiji program increased concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque and knee extensor endurance ratio. Taiji training may improve muscular strength and endurance of knee extensors in elderly individuals.
Lin, et al., 2000 Postural control/balance Cross-sectional study Healthy community dwelling elderly adults-- Taiji: 14 (mean=71) Control (active): 14 (mean=79) Regular Taiji practice might lead to better posutral control, especially in the more complicated conditions with disturbed visual and somatosensory information.
Lan, et al., 2001 Cardiorespiratory function Comparative study? (measure the HR and % of vo2 during Taiji) 15 healthy community dwelling middle- aged men (mean=40) Taiji is an aerobic exercise with moderate intensity.
Li, et al., 2001 Self-efficacy, Self function Randomized controlled trial 98 low-active healthy elderly 65-96, mean=73.2 /sd= 4.91). Taiji: 49 Control: 45 Taiji training has effects on both self-efficacy and self function.
Wang, et al., 2001 Microcirculatory function (cardiorespiratory function?) Case-control study Healthy community dwelling elderly males-- Taiji: 10 (mean=70) Control: 10 (mean=67) Compared to their sedentary counterparts, Taiji had higher cutaneous microcirculatory function during exercise.
Christou et al., 2003 Strength and force control Clinical trial Healthy community dwelling older adults-- Taiji group: 16 (mean age 71 yrs.) Control group: 10 (mean age 74 yrs) A 20 week Taiji program is effective in improving knee extensor strength and force control in older adults.
Irwin et al., 2003 Immunity --varicella-zoster virus (VZV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) Randomized controlled trial 36 older adults (age >=60 yrs.) with impairments of health status and are at risk for shingles--Taiji group: 18, Wait group: 18 A 15 week Taiji training boosts shingles immunity significantly (an increase in VZV-specific CMI).
Rosengren et al., 2003 Taiji movement quantification Clinical trial 16 healthy community dwelling older adults (mean age 71 yrs) Intervention programs that use Taiji should be at least 4 months long for individuals to achieve a moderate level of Taiji skill.
Song et al., 2003 Musculoskeletal disorder--Osteoarthritis (OA) Randomized controlled trial 43 older women with OA--Taiji group: 22, Control group: 21 A 12 week Taiji program is effective in improving OA patientsí arthritic symptoms, balance, and physical functioning.
Taggart et al., 2003 Musculoskeltal disorder--Fibromyalgia (FM) Controlled clinical trial 21 patients with FM completed a 6 week Taiji program Taiji is potentially beneficial to patients with FM.
Chan et al., 2004 Bone mineral density Randomized controlled trial 132 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 54 yrs.) were randomized assigned to two groups: Taiji group: 67, Control group: 65 A 12 month Taiji program is beneficial for slowing bone loss in weight-bearing bones in early postmenopausal women.
Han et al., 2004 Orthopedic disease (rheumatoid arthritis) Review Rheumatoid arthritis patients Taiji does not aggravate symptoms of RA. Taiji is effective in improving lower extremity range of motion, in particular ankle range of motion, for RA patients.
Lan et al., 2004 Intensity evaluation Evaluation 100 community dwelling Taiji practitioners aged 25-80 were divided into three groups: Young: 25-44 yrs., Middle-aged: 45-64 yrs., Elderly: 65-80 yrs. "Taiji is exercise with moderate intensity. It is an aerobic exercise and suitable for participants of different ages and gender to improve their functional capacity."
Li et al.,2004 Sleep disorder Randomized controlled trial 118 Community dwelling older adults with moderate sleep complaints--Taiji group: 62, Low-impact exercise group: 56 A 6 month Taiji program has positive effect on self-rated sleep quality of older adults with moderate sleep complaints.
Wu et al., 2004 Taiji movement quantification (Taiji gait) Evaluation 10 Taiji practitioners with mean age of 27 yrs. The biomechanical characteristics of Taiji gait can be quantified. The quantification of Taiji movement will enhance our understanding of its effects on balance, strength, flexibility, and health.


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